Habitat: Freshwater ecosystems
Description: This is a small species of fish generally reaching only up to 20 cm in length. It is brownish in colour with dark spots over its body. Ruffe have large spiny dorsal fin which is fused
Origin and Distribution: Native to Europe and
Impacts: The rapid growth and reproduction rate of this species impacts on fish communities as food and resources for native and desirable fish species become reduced. Fish eggs are also a target food source for this species
How might it get here? Introductions of this species are generally accidental or unintentional. This species can be introduced as live bait or in ballast water
- Do not introduce non native fish species.
- Do not move species of fish from one waterbody to another.
- Do not use live bait.
Adams, C.E. and P.S. Maitland, 1997. The Biology of the Ruffe Invasion of Loch Lomond, Scotland, University Field Station, Fish Conservation Centre. Available from:
Brownl, W. et al. (1998). Reproduction and early life history of Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) in the St. Louis River; a Lake Superior tributary. Journal of Great Lakes 24 (2): 2 17-227. Available from: http://sgnis.org/publicat/papers/jbrown.pdf
Dulcic, J. et al., (2005). First record of ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus (Percidae), in the Hutovo Blato wetland, Adriatic drainage system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Available from: http://www.mnhn.fr/sfi/cybium/numeros/pdf/292pdf/22-Dulcic290N.pdf
Anonymous (1996). Ruffe Control Program. Report Submitted to the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force by the Ruffe Control Committee. Available from: http://www.anstaskforce.gov/Species%20plans/RUFFE%20CONTROL%20PROGRAM.pdf. Accessed 13 January 2011.
Fact Sheet 4:TFM and SEA LAMPREY CONTROL A Success Story Available from http://www.glfc.org/pubs/FACT_4.pdf