Amber List: Potential Species

The risk assessment has generated prioritised lists of established and potential invasive species for Ireland and Northern Ireland. These lists been used to inform the selection of species for the development of Invasive Species Action Plans for potential and established invasive species. The risk assessment has also allowed the development of ‘amber list’ species. These lists identify species that, in the right ecological conditions, may have an impact on the conservation goals of a site or impact on a water body achieving good/high ecological status under the Water Framework Directive.

The species listed in the following table are those that could represent a significant impact on native species or habitats causing significant decline or loss; or species that could impact either/both Natura 2000 sites and the goals of the WFD. These species did not achieve a high risk rating overall. In some cases, this may be due to a lower risk of arriving in Ireland due to the fact that the species is not yet present in Britain while in other cases some of these species have been shown to impact on conservation goals elsewhere but it is possible that they will not establish in the wild. Please see the database for more information on the overall scoring of these species.

Species Common Name(s) Environment Score
Acacia dealbata Silver wattle
Blue wattle
Terrestrial 14
Acacia melanoxylon Australian blackwood
Blackwood acacia
Tasmanian blackwood
Terrestrial 13
Acartia tonsa A copepod Marine 10
Acridotheres tristis Common Myna Terrestrial 11
Acroptilon repens hardheads
Russian knapweed
Turestan thistle
Terrestrial 9
Adelges tsugae Hemlock Woolly Adelgid,
Hemlock Wooly Adelgid
Terrestrial 6
Ageratum conyzoides Tropical Whiteweed Terrestrial 8
Agrilus planipennis Emerald Ash Borer Terrestrial 8
Akebia quinata Five-Leaf Akebia
Chocolate vine
Terrestrial 15
Alopochen aegyptiacus Egyptian Goose Terrestrial 16
Ameiurus melas Black Brotula,
Black Bullhead,
Black Catfish,
Bullhead, Catfish,
Yellow Belly Bullhead
Freshwater 12
Anopheles quadrimaculatus common malaria mosquito Terrestrial 14
Anoplophora chinensis White-Spotted Longhorn Beetle
Citrus Long-Horned Beetle,
Citrus Longhorned Beetle,
Terrestrial 15
Anoplophora glabripennis Asian Longhorned Beetle
Starry sky beetle
Terrestrial 14
Anser indicus Bar-Headed Goose Terrestrial 16
Apis mellifera scutellata Africanized Honeybee Terrestrial 12
Ardisia elliptica shoe-button ardisia
shoebutton ardisia
Terrestrial 13
Arion lusitanicus Spanish Slug
Iberian Slug
Portuguese Slug
Terrestrial 16
Asterias amurensis Flatbottom Seastar,
Japanese Seastar,
Japanese Starfish,
North Pacific Seastar,
Northern Pacific Seastar,
Purple-Orange Seastar
Marine 16
Axis axis Axis Deer
Terrestrial 17
Boa constrictor imperator common boa
Boa Constrictor
Terrestrial 8
Boiga irregularis Brown Catsnake,
Brown Tree Snake
Terrestrial 17
Brachidontes pharaonis Red Sea mussel Marine 9
Bromus inermis Awnless brome
Hungarian brome
smooth brome
smooth bromegrass
Terrestrial 12
Bromus rubens foxtail brome
foxtail chess
red brome
Terrestrial 9
Bubo bubo Eurasian Eagle-Owl
Rock Eagle-Owl
Terrestrial 16
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus pine wood nematode
pinewood nematode
Pine Wilt Nematode
Terrestrial 16
Catostomus commersonii White Sucker, Black Mullet, Black Sucker, Brook Sucker, Buffalofish, Carp, Coarse Scaled Sucker, Common Sucker, Common White Sucker, Eastern Sucker, Fine Scaled Sucker, Grey Sucker, June Sucker, Mud Sucker, Mullet, Sucker, White Sturgeon, Freshwater 13
Caulerpa racemosa Grape Alga Marine 13
Centaurea diffusa White Knapweed Centaurea Diffusa Terrestrial 13
Centaurea melitensis Cockspur Thistle, Malta Starthistle, Malta Thistle, Maltese Star Centaury, Maltese Star Thistle, Maltese Star-Thistle, Maltese Starthistle, Napa Thistle, Spotted Knapweed, Tocalote, Yellow Star-Thistle Terrestrial 10
Ceratitis capitata Medfly
Mediterranean Fruit Fly
Terrestrial 15
Channa argus Northern Snakehead
Amur snakehead
Striped murrel
Freshwater 12
Charybdis japonica Asian crab,
Asian paddle crab,
blue crab,
paddle crab,
swimming crab
Marine 11
Chelydra serpentina Snapper
Snapping turtle
Yucatan Snapping Turtle
Semiaquatic 11
Chloephaga picta Magellan/upland Goose Terrestrial 15
Chromolaena odorata Jack in the bush
Terrestrial 10
Cichla ocellaris Butterfly Peacock Bass,
Peacock Bass,
Peacock Cichlid,
Freshwater 13
Clidemia hirta kaurasiga
Koster’s curse
mbona na mbulamakau
soap bush
Terrestrial 14
Cygnus atratus Black Swan Terrestrial 15
Cyperus rotundus chaguan humatag
purple nutsedge
Terrestrial 14
Daphnia lumholtzi Water flea Freshwater 7
Diaphorina citri Asian citrus psyllid Terrestrial 12
Dryocosmus kuriphilus Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp Terrestrial 12
Echinocystis lobata Wild Cucumber Terrestrial 13
Eichhornia crassipes Water Hyacinth Freshwater 14
Elaeagnus umbellata Japanese Silverberry Terrestrial 12
Eleutherodactylus coqui Common Coquí
Terrestrial 11
Euglandina rosea rosy wolfsnail
cannibal snail
Terrestrial 11
Galinsoga quadriradiata hairy galinsoga
shaggy soldier
Terrestrial 15
Gambusia affinis Mosquitofish
Western mosquitofish
Freshwater 14
Gambusia holbrooki Eastern mosquitofish Freshwater 10
Gracilaria vermiculophylla Marine 16
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides Senegal teaplant, temple plant Freshwater 14
Hedychium gardnerianum Wild ginger Terrestrial 15
Hemigrapsus penicillatus Marine 15
Heracleum sosnowskyi Sosnowski’s hogweed Terrestrial 17
Herpestes javanicus Small Asian Mongoose
Indian Mongoose
Small Indian Mongoose
Javan Mongoose
Terrestrial 11
Hiptage benghalensis hiptage Terrestrial 5
Homalodisca vitripennis Glassy-winged Sharp-Shooter. Terrestrial 16
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Common frogbit
European frog’s-bit
Freshwater 17
Hydroides dianthus Tubeworm Marine 14
Hydroides elegans Tubeworm Marine 14
Hyphantria cunea Fall budworm
Fall webworm
Fall webworm moth
Terrestrial 12
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Chinese schemer; Silver carp. Freshwater 17
Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Big Head Carp
Noble Carp
Silver Carp
Freshwater 12
Imperata cylindrica blady grass
kunai grass
Japanese bloodgrass
Ipomoea aquatica Swamp morning-glory, Freshwater 8
Lepidium appelianum Hairy Whitetop, Hoary Cress, Globe-podded Hoary Cress, Ball Cress, White-top lens, Peppergrass. Terrestrial 7
Leptinotarsa decemlineata Colorado beetle
Ten-striped spearman
Ten-lined potato beetle
Terrestrial 16
Linepithema humile Argentine ant Terrestrial 15
Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus American water weevil Terrestrial 12
Macaca fascicularis Crab – Eating Macaque
Cynomolgus Monkey
Philippine Monkey
Long-tailed Macaque
Terrestrial 7
Macfadyena unguis-cati blady grass
kunai grass
Japanese bloodgrass
Terrestrial 14
Marenzelleria neglecta Red-gilled Mud Worm Semiaquatic 13
Marsupenaeus japonicus Caribbean mud crab Marine 10
Mimosa pigra bashful plant; Giant Sensitive Tree. Terrestrial 10
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus Weatherfish Freshwater 15
Mnemiopsis leidyi Comb Jelly Marine 17
Monopterus albus rice eel (English), swamp eel (English), white ricefield eel (English) Semiaquatic 8
Morella faya candleberry myrtle, fayatree, firebush, firebush Terrestrial 9
Nasua nasua Coatimundi
Terrestrial 8
Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus Asian bush mosquito (English), Asian rock pool mosquito (English-United States) Semiaquatic 15
Odontella sinensis Chinese diatom Marine 17
Opuntia ficus-indica Prickly-pear cacti
Cactus pear
Indian-fig prickly-pear
Terrestrial 12
Opuntia stricta Erect pricklypear Terrestrial 7
Osteopilus septentrionalis Cuban tree frog
Giant Tree-frog
Marbled Tree-toad
Semiaquatic 8
Palaemon macrodactalus Migrant prawn Marine 14
Paralithodes camtschaticus Red King Crab Marine 17
Paspalum distichum Knotgrass Freshwater 7
Paulownia tomentosa empress tree buy cheap celexa/ (English), foxglove-tree (English), karritree (English), kiri (Japanese), princess tree (English) Terrestrial 10
Pelophylax kl. esculenta Edible Frog Semiaquatic 14
Pelophylax ridibundus Marsh frog Freshwater 15
Percnon gibbesi Sally lightfoot crab Marine 12
Petricola pholadiformis American piddock Marine 12
Pinctada radiata Gulf pearl oyster Marine 13
Pittosporum undulatum Australian cheesewood, mock orange, native daphne, orange pittosporum, sweet pittosporum, Victorian box, Victorian laurel, wild coffee. Terrestrial 14
Plasmodium relictum Avian malaria 13
Platydemus manokwari flatworm, snail-eating flatworm. Terrestrial 7
Polygonum perfoliatum Asiatic tearthumb, devil’s-tail tearthumb, mile-a-minute-vine, mile-a-minute-weed, minuteweed, tearthumb Terrestrial 14
Pontogammarus robustoides Freshwater 17
Popillia japonica Japanese beetle Terrestrial 12
Portunus pelagicus Blue swimming crab Marine 11
Potamocorbula amurensis brackish-water corbula Freshwater 14
Prosopis glandulosa honey mesquite, mesquite, Mesquite, Texas mesquite Terrestrial 9
Psidium guajava guava Terrestrial 9
Psittacula eupatria Alexandrine Parakeet Terrestrial 14
Pylodictis olivaris mud cat (English), opelousas (English), shovelhead cat (English), yellow cat (English) Freshwater 14
Rhopilema nomadica Nomad jellyfish Marine 15
Rosa bracteata Macartney rose Terrestrial 14
Rusa timorensis Rusa,
Rusa Deer,
Sunda Sambar,
Timor Deer
Terrestrial 14
Sabella spallanzanii European fan worm, giant fan worm, Mediterranean fan worm, sabellid fan worm Marine 14
Salvelinus namaycush Lake Trout Freshwater 14
Salvinia molesta Giant Salvinia
Kariba Weed
Freshwater 12
Sicyos angulatus burcucumber, one seed burcucumber, oneseed burr cucumber. Terrestrial 15
Siganus rivulatus Marbled spinefoot
Marine 13
Solidago nemoralis grey goldenrod Terrestrial 16
Solidobalanus fallax Warm-water Barnacle. Marine 14
Spathodea campanulata African tulip tree Terrestrial 5
Spodoptera littoralis African Cotton Leafworm Terrestrial 17
Tamarix ramosissima salt cedar, tamarisk, tamarix. Terrestrial 12
Tamias striatus Eastern Chipmunk, ground squirrel, hackee, striped squirrel Terrestrial 11
Trapa natans Bull nut , European water chestnut, water chestnut , water nut. Freshwater 13
Triadica sebifera candleberry-tree, chicken tree, Chinese tallow, Florida aspen, popcorn tree, tallow tree, vegetable tallow, white waxberry Terrestrial 14
Trichosurus vulpecula brushtail possum Terrestrial 15
Verbena brasiliensis Brazilian vervain (English), gin case (English) Terrestrial 12
Vitex rotundifolia beach vitex
cloister pepper
dan ye man jing
hinahina kolo
kolokolo kahakai
man hyung ja
monk’s pepper
roundleaf chastetree
single-leaf chaste tree
Terrestrial 8
Xenopus laevis African Clawed Toad
Freshwater 14
Ziziphus mauritiana Indian cherry, Indian jujube, Indian plum Terrestrial 5
Zostera japonica Dwarf eelgrass Marine 13

Amber list: Uncertain impact

The species listed below are rated as medium risk due to the score of the overall assessment however, their impact on conservation goals remains uncertain due to lack of data showing impact (or lack of impact).

Species Common Name(s) Environment Score
Acacia mearnsii black wattle Terrestrial 3
Acer negundo Box-elder, ash-leaved maple, manitoba maple Terrestrial 13
Achatina fulica Giant African Land Snail Terrestrial 11
Achtheres percarum Parasitic Copepod Freshwater 12
Acipenser baerii Siberian sturgeon Freshwater 12
Acipenser ruthenus Sterlet Freshwater 13
Acridotheres cristatellus Crested mynah Terrestrial 5
Acridotheres ginginianus bank mynah Terrestrial 6
Agardhiella subulata Marine 10
Alectoris chukar Chukar
Chukar Partridge
Terrestrial 13
Alopex lagopus Arctic fox
Pribilof Island Arctic Fox
Terrestrial 5
Alternanthera philoxeroides alligator weed
pig weed
Freshwater 15
Alternathera sessisis sessile joyweed 6
Amaranthus bouchonii Terrestrial 10
Ammothea hilgendorfi A sea spider Marine 12
Anchusa ochroleuca Yellow Alkanet Terrestrial 10
Antithamnion nipponicum None identified Marine 14
Aonyx cinerea Short-clawed otter Terrestrial 4
Aphis gossypii Cotton aphid
Melon aphid
Melon and cotton aphid
Terrestrial 15
Aratinga acuticaudata Blue-crowned Parakeet Terrestrial 6
Bemisia argentifolii Silverleaf Whitefly
Sweet Potato Whitefly
Terrestrial 5
Bidens connata Purplestem Beggarticks
swamp beggar’s-ticks
Terrestrial 9
Bidens frondosa bur marigold
devil’s beggartick
devil’s beggarticks
devil’s bootjack
devils beggartick
pitchfork weed
tickseed sunflower
Terrestrial 14
Branchiura sowerbyi Oligochaete Worm Freshwater 13
Bromus tectorum Plantae Terrestrial 13
Bufo marinus Cane toad
South American Cane Toad
Semiaquatic 14
Cactoblastis cactorum Cactus Moth
Prickly Pear Moth
Terrestrial 2
Canis lupus dingo Australian dingo Terrestrial 5
Castor canadensis Admiralty Beaver,
American Beaver,
Canadian Beaver
Terrestrial 14
Cebus spp capuchin Terrestrial 5
Chamaeleonidae chamaeleons Terrestrial 9
Chinchilla spp chinchilla Terrestrial 9
Chrysanthemoides monilifera Bitou Bush
Terrestrial 7
Cinara cupressi Cypress Aphid Terrestrial 17
Clarias batrachus Albino Pristella, Albino Walking Fish, Clarias Catfish, Climbing Perch, Freshwater Catfish, Ito, Magur, Pa Douk, Philippine Catfish, Thai Hito, Thailand Catfish, Toyman’s Spotted Catfish, Walking Catfishh Freshwater 13
Contarinia quinquenotata Hemerocallis gall midge Terrestrial 15
Coptotermes formosanus Formosan Subterranean Termite,
Ground Termites
Terrestrial 12
Cotinus coggygria Common Smoketree, European Smoketree, Fustet, Smoke Tree, Smokebush, Smoketree, Venetian Sumach, Venetian-Sumac, Wigtree, Young Fustic Terrestrial 10
Craspedacusta sowerbyi Freshwater Jellyfish Freshwater 14
Ctenopharyngodon idella Gardd Carp,
Grass Carp,
Grass Carp(=white Amur),
Pa Kin Gnia,
Silver Orfe,
White amur,
White Amur
Freshwater 13
Cynomys ludovicianus Arizona Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Terrestrial 8
Cyperus esculentus chufa
chufa flatsedge
yellow nutgrass
yellow nutsedge
Terrestrial 13
Dermacentor reticulatus recorded species European meadow tick Terrestrial 17
Disphyma crassifolium Purple Dewplant, Round-leaved Pigface Terrestrial 15
Dyspanopeus sayi Say’s Mud Crab 11
Elaphe longissima Aesculapian snake Terrestrial 14
Elaphe spp rat snakes Terrestrial 14
Eliomys quercinus Garden dormouse Terrestrial 10
Felis bengalensis Leopard Cat Terrestrial 9
Fistularia commersonii Blue-spotted cornetfish
Smooth flutemouth
Marine 11
Gekkonidae geckos Terrestrial 8
Glis glis Edible Dormouse Terrestrial 16
Haliplanella lineata Orange-striped sea anemone Marine 11
Hemigrapsus sanguineus Asian Shore crab Marine 13
Hydrochoerus hydrochoaeris Capybara Semiaquatic 9
Hyla arborea Common Tree Frog
European Tree Frog
Terrestrial 7
Ictalurus punctatus Ictalurid catfishes Freshwater 14
Iguanidae iguanas Terrestrial 9
Lacerta bilineata Western Green Lizard
Lacerta viridis
Terrestrial 11
Lampropeltis spp king/milk snakes Terrestrial 7
Lasius neglectus Asian Super Ant
Invasive garden ant
Terrestrial 15
Leuciscus idus Ide
Freshwater 17
Ligustrum robustum Sri Lankan privet Terrestrial 3
Marenzelleria viridis Semiaquatic 11
Mephitis mephitis Striped Skunk Terrestrial 11
Miconia calvescens miconia, velvet tree. Terrestrial 13
Micropterus salmoides Largemouth Bass, Black Bass. Freshwater 12
Mikania micrantha American rope (English), Chinese creeper (English) Terrestrial 10
Molothrus spp cowbirds Terrestrial 14
Mytilopsis leucophaeata False Dark Mussel Marine 14
Nathrius brevipennis Terrestrial 9
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Pink Salmon
Humpback Salmon
Freshwater 13
Oncorhynchus keta Chum Salmon Freshwater 13
Oreochromis mossambicus Mozambique talapia/ Mozambique Mouth-Brooder. Freshwater 12
Panicum repens Torpedo grass. Semiaquatic 10
Paspalum paspaloides Knotgrass
Mercer grass
Water couch
Buffalo quick paspalum
Couch paspalum
Terrestrial 12
Perophora japonica Sea-Squirt Marine 13
Petaurus breviceps sugar glider Terrestrial 7
Phasianus versicolor Green Pheasant Terrestrial 12
Podarcis muralis Wall lizard
Lazarus lizard
Terrestrial 11
Pomacea canaliculata Apple Snail, Golden Apple Snail, Channeled Apple Snail. Semiaquatic 11
Prokelisia marginata Spartina Planthopper Terrestrial 17
Pueraria montana var. lobata Kudzu Terrestrial 14
Pycnonotus cafer red-vented bulbul Terrestrial 9
Rhithropanopeus harrisii Dwarf crab, estuarine mud crab, white-fingered mud crab, Zuiderzee crab. Marine 16
Saurida undosquamis Brushtooth lizardfish Marine 9
Selenochlamys ysbryda Ghost Slug Terrestrial 14
Solanum viarum Tropical soda apple Terrestrial 11
Sphagneticola trilobata creeping ox-eye, Singapore daisy, trailing daisy, wedelia Terrestrial 4
Tapinoma melanocephalum Ghost Ant Terrestrial 11
Tomicus piniperda common pine shoot beetle
larger pine shoot beetle
pine shoot beetle
Terrestrial 15
Triturus carnifex Italian Crested Newt Semiaquatic 11
Wasmannia auropunctata electric ant
little fire ant
Terrestrial 14
Watersipora subtorquata Marine 14
Zamenis longissimus Aesculapian Snake Terrestrial 14