Curly waterweed

Lagarosiphon major

Overview

Photo credit: ©Rose Muir NIEA
Lagarosiphon major
Common Names:
  • Curly waterweed, African elodea, Lagarosiphon, oxygen weed, South African oxygen weed, submerged onocotyledon

Habitat:
  • Lakes and slow flowing aquatic systems such as canals, low energy rivers and streams. The plant can grow in water up to 6m deep.
  • In addition to occupying the full water column, plant stands produce dense vegetation on the water surface.

Widely Spread Species:
  • Under Article 19 of Invasive Alien Species Regulation (1143/2014) Curly waterweed has been identified as a Widely Spread Species in Northern Ireland and as such, management measures have been put in place to minimise its impacts.

Description:
  • This species acts as an aggressive, invasive, alien plant species in Ireland but it is also regarded as a nuisance weed in its home territory. The leaves, 5-20mm long, are strongly recurved and are borne in whorls of 3 or in a spiral arrangement.  The long stem is brittle and easily broken (aiding dispersal). Only female plants are present and all reproduction is by fragmentation or vegetative reproduction. Due to its rampant growth, it develops rapidly into a tangled mass that blocks out the light and alters the entire ecosystem beneath. As a result, native aquatic plants and invertebrates are unable to survive. The plant also causes significant economic damage by choking up water channels and hydroelectric plants and by impairing boating and other water-based recreational activities.
  • As the species is difficult to eradicate, it is important to prevent it from spreading into other EU countries. EU level action includes a ban on sales and any planting or keeping, including in isolated ponds. Furthermore, a rapid eradication of any new populations is required, to avoid the excessively high costs associated with its management later on. Where the species has become widely spread, appropriate management measures have to be taken.

Origin and Distribution:
  • Originating from southern Africa but the species is now present in Europe and Britain.

Impacts:
  • The plant forms very dense infestations in suitable habitats and is capable of occupying the full water column in waters up to 6m deep leading to significant changes to the ecology for native plants, insects and fish. The species is a serious threat for tourism, angling, boating and other recreational pursuits as well as conservation goals.
  • Due to its rampant growth, it develops rapidly into a tangled mass that blocks out the light and alters the entire ecosystem beneath. As a result, native aquatic plants and invertebrates are unable to survive. The plant also causes significant economic damage by choking up water channels and hydroelectric plants.

How did it get here?
  • Native to South Africa, the species was introduced into Europe as an oxygenating plant for the aquarium trade.
  • It has since established itself in slow-flowing water bodies, lakes and ponds across 11 Member States (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom).

Is it found in Ireland or Northern Ireland?
  • It is present in Ireland and Northern Ireland.
  • More information can be seen on NBDC and NBN Atlas NI.

You can help by reporting any sightings:

Static Distribution Map as of December 2019 - Courtesy of CEDaR


Prevent Spread:
  • Promote native species and biodiversity - use alternative, native plants.
  • Know what you are buying/growing and source native Irish seed and plants.
  • Do not swap plants and cuttings.
  • Clean plants before adding to ponds (dispose of water away from water courses).
  • Follow control advice and watch out for hitchhikers - inspect new imported purchases for invasive pest and pathogens.
  • Clean equipment before moving between waterbodies.
  • Never collect plants from the wild.
  • Follow the guidelines in the 'Be Plant Wise' Section of this website

Further Resources:
BE PLANT WISE!!
 
Current Legislative Position (Listed on 03 August 2016)
  • This species must not intentionally be brought into the Union; kept; bred; transported to, from or within the United Kingdom, unless for the transportation to facilities in the context of eradication; placed on the market; used or exchanged; permitted to reproduce, grown or cultivated; or released into the environment.
For further queries, you can contact the Non Native Invasive Species Team in the Northern Ireland Environment Agency on 028 9056 9558.

Species Related Files:

Invasive Species Ireland

Invasive Species Ireland